Other denominations with more than one college or university with a peace studies program are the Quakers , Mennonites , Church of the Brethren , and United Church of Christ. One hundred fifteen of these programs are at the undergraduate level and 21 at the graduate level. Fifteen of these colleges and universities had both undergraduate and graduate programs. Perhaps most importantly, such programs and research agendas have now become common in institutions located in conflict, post-conflict, and developing countries and regions such as e.
Although individual thinkers such as Immanuel Kant had long recognised the centrality of peace see Perpetual Peace , it was not until the s and s that peace studies began to emerge as an academic discipline with its own research tools, a specialized set of concepts, and forums for discussion such as journals and conferences.
The group of initial members included Kenneth Boulding and Anatol Rapoport. In , this group became the Peace Science Society. Peace science was viewed as an interdisciplinary and international effort to develop a special set of concepts, techniques and data to better understand and mitigate conflict.
Among the original executive committee was Johan Galtung. The IPRA holds a biennial conference. Research presented at its conferences and in its publications typically focuses on institutional and historical approaches, seldom employing quantitative techniques. The PJSA publishes a regular newsletter The Peace Chronicle , and holds annual conferences on themes related to the organization's mission "to create a just and peaceful world" through research, scholarship, pedagogy, and activism.
In , Strategic Foresight Group presented its report on an innovative mechanism to find sustainable solution to conflicts in the Middle East. It also developed a new Water Cooperation Quotient,  which is a measure of active cooperation by riparian countries in the management of water resources using 10 parameters including legal, political, technical, environmental, economic and institutional aspects.
There has been a long-standing and vibrant debate on disarmament issues, as well as attempts to investigate, catalogue, and analyse issues relating to arms production, trade, and their political impacts. Peace and conflict studies is now well established within the social sciences: Peace Studies allows one to examine the causes and prevention of war, as well as the nature of violence, including social oppression, discrimination and marginalization.
Through peace studies one can also learn peace-making strategies to overcome persecution and transform society to attain a more just and equitable international community. Feminist scholars have developed a speciality within conflict studies, specifically examining the role of gender in armed conflicts. Examples of feminist scholarship include the work of Carol Cohn and Claire Duncanson. The negative and positive peace framework is the most widely used today. Negative peace refers to the absence of direct violence.
Positive peace refers to the absence of indirect and structural violence , and is the concept that most peace and conflict researchers adopt. This is often credited to Galtung  but these terms were previously used by Martin Luther King in the Letter from a Birmingham Jail in , in which he wrote about "negative peace which is the absence of tension" and "positive peace which is the presence of justice. Several conceptions, models, or modes of peace have been suggested in which peace research might prosper.
There have been many offerings on these various forms of peace. These range from the well known works of Kant , Locke , Rousseau , Paine , on various liberal international and constitutional and plans for peace. Udayakumar , Tom Woodhouse , others mentioned above and many more. Democratic peace , liberal peace, sustainable peace, civil peace, hybrid peace, post-liberal peace, trans-rational peace s and other concepts are regularly used in such work.
Under the conceptions of peace, sustainable peace must be regarded as an important factor for the future of prosperity.
Sustainable peace must be the priority of global society where state actors and non-state actors do not only seek for the profits in a near future that might violate the stable state of peace. For a sustainable peace, nurturing, empowerment, and communications are considered to be the crucial factors throughout the world. Firstly, nurturing is necessary to encourage psychological stability and emotional maturity.
The significance of social value in adequate nurturing is important for sustainable peace. Secondly, in order to achieve real security, inner security must be secured along with arranged social systems and protection based on firm foundation. Lastly, communications are necessary to overcome ignorance and establish a community based on reliable and useful information. It will prevents isolation to take place which is critical to bring sustainable peace.
Johan Galtung 's conflict triangle works on the assumption that the best way to define peace is to define violence, its opposite. It reflects the normative aim of preventing, managing, limiting and overcoming violence. Each corner of Galtung's triangle can relate to the other two. Ethnic cleansing can be an example of all three.
Cost of conflict is a tool which attempts to calculate the price of conflict to the human race. The idea is to examine this cost, not only in terms of the deaths and casualties and the economic costs borne by the people involved, but also the social, developmental, environmental and strategic costs of conflict.
The approach considers direct costs of conflict, for instance human deaths, expenditure, destruction of land and physical infrastructure; as well as indirect costs that impact a society, for instance migration, humiliation, growth of extremism and lack of civil society.
Strategic Foresight Group , a think tank in India , has developed a Cost of Conflict Series for countries and regions involved in protracted conflicts.
This tool is aimed at assessing past, present and future costs looking at a wide range of parameters. The normative aims of peace studies are conflict transformation and conflict resolution through mechanisms such as peacekeeping , peacebuilding e.
Peacekeeping falls under the aegis of negative peace, whereas efforts toward positive peace involve elements of peace building and peacemaking. One of the interesting developments within peace and conflict studies is the number of military personnel undertaking such studies. This poses some challenges, as the military is an institution overtly committed to combat. In the article "Teaching Peace to the Military", published in the journal Peace Review ,  James Page argues for five principles that ought to undergird this undertaking, namely, respect but do not privilege military experience, teach the just war theory, encourage students to be aware of the tradition and techniques of nonviolence, encourage students to deconstruct and demythologize, and recognize the importance of military virtue.
Scholars working in the areas of peace and conflict studies have made significant contributions to the policies used by non-governmental organisations, development agencies, international financial institutions, and the UN system, in the specific areas of conflict resolution and citizen diplomacy, development, political, social, and economic reform, peacekeeping, mediation, early warning, prevention, peacebuilding, and statebuilding.
This research agenda is in the process of establishing a more nuanced agenda for peacebuilding which also connects with the original, qualitatively and normatively oriented work that emerged in the peace studies and conflict research schools of the s e. Hence this school prefers the strictly relational and systemic method of elicitive conflict transformation Lederach  to the prescriptive approaches of modern conflict resolution. A serious number of well established criticisms have been aimed at peace and conflict studies, often but not necessarily from outside the realms of university system, including that peace studies:.
Barbara Kay , a columnist for the National Post , specifically criticized the views of Norwegian professor Johan Galtung , who is considered to be a leader in modern peace research. Kay wrote that Galtung has written on the "structural fascism" of "rich, Western, Christian" democracies, admires Fidel Castro , opposed resistance to the Soviet Invasion of Hungary in , and has described Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov as "persecuted elite personages.
Galtung has also stated that the United States is a "killer country" that is guilty of "neo-fascist state terrorism" and has reportedly stated that the destruction of Washington, D. More broadly, he argued that Peace Studies are dominated by the belief that "America Regarding his claim that Peace Studies supports violence in the pursuit of leftist ideology, Bawer cited a quote from Peace and Conflict Studies ,   a widely used textbook written by Charles P.
Webel and David P. Our Peace Research Grants do not allow for indirect costs, particularly in the form of facilities or administration. Successful applicants agree to include the following in all current and future written and oral presentations related to this research project: The Project Proposal should state the date the project is anticipated to end.
After the grant is awarded, the actual completion date may be negotiated with the Grant Administrator should unanticipated circumstances arise. The project end date is set at one year after the date the awardee receives the grant money, at which time all required final documents are due. A one page progress report 6 months after receiving a grant must be submitted summarizing how the money has been spent to date, what has been accomplished, obstacles and delays, if any, and next steps.
This report must identify project outcomes, including what was accomplished and learned. Primary Investigators should also explain additional dissemination and publication plans as part of the project outcomes. This final report must be completed within the timeline submitted in the proposal or within a revised, agreed upon timeline. In addition, an awardee will provide a brief report on the project and its outcomes written in a style appropriate for the IPRA Foundation Newsletter.
This brief report of words, single-spaced, in Word format, is due on the Final Report Date. Form will be available January 1, Peace Research Grant Application Instructions. Mission The mission of the IPRA Foundation is to advance the field of peace research through rigorous investigation into the causes of conflict and examination of alternatives to violence.
We value original research, and peace activities informed by that research, that contributes to the world community and engages key stakeholders. We value peace and justice by nonviolent means.
We value respecting dignity, humanity, identity and diversity. We value research by people of and within the most vulnerable and marginalized areas of our world community.
You are expected to demonstrate how your project supports nonviolent strategies in peace and conflict studies. You are expected to identify your strategy for disseminating the results of the project to a broad audience and key stakeholders. Beyond academic journals, we recognize the value of cultural art forms, mainstream publications, TED talks, etc.
You are responsible for ensuring the safety and privacy of the research participant. If you receive a Peace Research Grant, you agree to include the following statement in all current and future written and oral presentations related to this research project: Maximum length of document must be 6 single-spaced pages not including the bibliography. Fees by a third party such as a university to administer your grant Your normal living expenses such as rent, utilities, phone, etc.
Journal of Peace Research (JPR) is an interdisciplinary and international peer reviewed bimonthly journal of scholarly work in peace research. Journal of Peace Research strives for a global focus on conflict and peacemaking. The journal encourages a wide conception of peace, but focuses on the causes of violence and conflict resolution.
Peace Research publishes broadly on issues of conflict, violence, poverty, just peace and human well-being. Peace and conflict studies holds peace as a value, and peaceful methods as the most desirable form of conflict transformation.
PRIO's purpose is to conduct research for a more peaceful world. In pursuit of this, we cultivate academic excellence, communicate with communities of scholars, policy-makers, practitioners, as well as the general public, and we engage in shaping the global peace research agenda. Journal of Peace Research Journal of Peace Research is an interdisciplinary and international bimonthly, covering scholarly work in peace research. It strives for a global perspective on peace and peacemaking, with particular focus on the causes of violence and conflict resolution.
The Journal of Peace Research is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes scholarly articles and book reviews in the fields of peace and conflict studies, conflict resolution, and international security. It was established by Johan Galtung in and has been published bimonthly since Publisher: SAGE Publications. To further the pursuit of learning and growing, our faculty at the Joan B. Kroc School of Peace Studies has active research agendas on a variety of issues related to peacebuilding, human rights, .