As in South Africa, Gandhi established an ashram and undertook many human rights causes, including opposition to the "untouchability" of lower caste Hindus. In addition he established the newspaper Young India later renamed Harijan and contributed essays on such topics as land reform, Indian textile manufacture, village industry, and education reform.
When his crusade in protest of legislation that prohibited organized political opposition to the British government erupted in violence in , Gandhi ended the campaign and embarked on a widely publicized fast in order to return to nonviolent means of achieving his political aims. Throughout the s and s Gandhi developed a social and economic philosophy that supported his efforts for Swaraj Indian home rule. Key events of the period include the Salt March of , in which he led a group of several thousand followers on a mile trek to the sea in protest of a salt tax imposed by the British government, and the Roundtable Conference of , a series of discussions held in London on the future of India.
Gandhi was imprisoned numerous times as a result of his civil disobedience but continued to work for a peaceful end to British colonial rule and Indian national unity. While Indian political freedom was granted in , factions within the country were unable to resolve their differences and the subcontinent was partitioned into India and Pakistan.
In January a fast by Gandhi motivated Hindu and Moslem leaders to end the continuing violence between religious sects. He was assassinated soon afterward by a Hindu extremist who opposed Gandhi's tolerance for other religious groups. Gandhi was a prolific writer who published works in a variety of genres, including essays, poetry, letters, philosophy, and autobiography, and his works are chiefly noted for revealing the development of his religious philosophy, social program, and political technique of Satyagraha.
As outlined in An Autobiography; or, The Story of My Experiments with Truth, Gandhi's ideas derived from traditional Hindu beliefs as well as from aspects of Christianity and other religious faiths. Gandhi also credited the philosophy of nonviolence advocated by the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy, the anti-industrial social theories propounded by the English philosopher John Ruskin, and the principles delineated by Henry David Thoreau in his essay "Civil Disobedience" as contributing substantially to the formation of his thought.
Based on Hindu concepts of ahimsa innocence , satya truth , and brahmacharya self-discipline , Gandhi's teachings advocated such practices as vegetarianism, celibacy, and poverty.
His social and economic program included collectivism, home industry, and the redistribution of agricultural land. Gandhi's seminal argument for Indian independence from Great Britain is contained in "Hind Swaraj; or, Indian Home Rule," an essay that originally appeared in the journal Indian Opinion. His writings have been meticulously collected by the Indian government and now comprise more than eighty volumes.
All his attempts to become a fashionable English gentleman again proved a misadventure as his attempts to smoke and eating meat had proved earlier in India. Therefore, he gave up these attempts of becoming a gentleman and decided to follow his own nature. In , he passed his Bar-at-Law examination and in the summer of the same year returned to India, to his great relief, and he was called to the Bar at Bombay but again as a praclicener of law, he proved a miserable failure.
His self- consciousness was too great a stumbling block to overcome. Then he went to South Africa in April to help a distant relation in legal matters. His long stay in Africa proved a blessing in disguise and really a turning point. In South Africa, Gandhi was subjected to too much humiliation, indignities and apartheid. He was even thrown out of a train because he dared to travel in the first class with a white man.
These trials, tribulations and travails helped him a lot to ponder hard on the matter and to turn towards God for light, guidance and help. This process of deep introspection and prayer, soon transformed him into a determined vocal, analytical and committed person. Spiritually, he grew in stature rapidly and found his self-confidence and moorings.
He resolved to renounce wealth and materialistic possessions to become a true Karma yogi. He then took a vow of strict celibacy with the due knowledge and consent of his wife Kasturba. He set up Phoenix Farm near Durban and continued his experiments with truth and soul-searching. These studies strengthened further his convictions, resolves and vows regarding non-violence, brahamcharya, non-possession, devotion to God and service to the humanity at large.
He had his first practice session in non-violence, civil disobedience and service on a very small scale. He led the Indian community against very discriminatory and prejudicial laws which required them to be registered and finger-printed and carry special identity cards.
It was an object lesson in how to serve the mankind which earned him appreciation and admiration of many in the government and the public. He returned to India in and was accorded a very warm reception on his return to his country on January 9. He established an ashram on the bank of river Sabarmati, near Ahmadabad on the same lines and principles on which had done so in South Africa. He came under the influence of moderate Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhle, and began to regard himself as his follower.
He championed the cause of the indigo farmers of Champaran in Bihar against their exploitation. In he began the Kheda peasant satyagraha and then a movement against Rowlett Act by giving nationwide call for hartal for a day.
His identification with the poor and downtrodden masses of India was natural, spontaneous and complete. His utter simplicity, sincerity and deep faith in the noble cause of freedom and welfare of the people helped him to turn the freedom struggle into a mass movement. Soon he became synonymous with Congress and the freedom movement. He inspired the masses with confidence, courage and hope. He introduced Khadi and popularized the spinning wheel to mitigate the sufferings of the rural poor.
The wheel and Khadi soon became powerful weapons and symbols of national unity, integration, social renaissance and a kind of economical revolution among the masses. He travelled extensively, met people, exchanged ideas with them, won their hearts and minds and converted them into his faith.
Crowds rushed to see him, to know his views and to seek his guidance on various issues. They became integral part of his crusade against slavery, exploitation, injustice, suppression, hatred and violence. He was imprisoned on several occasions on false and fabricated charges but his spirit of devotion to the cause of liberty, remained ever undaunted, nay emerged stronger, nobler and more determined after every such imprisonment. In December , at the annual session of the Congress in Lahore, he made the party pass a unanimous resolution of Swaraj, complete freedom.
On March 12, he undertook the famous Dandi March. On April 6, he reached the seashore and lifted a lump of salt in a symbolic violation of the monopolistic and cruel law of the British government.
He was arrested and so were thousands of other leaders and his followers. It was a historic event and an unprecedented example of mass civil-disobedience.
Early life: The birth of Mahatma Gandhi took place on 2nd day of October in at Porbandar (Gujarat). His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was a noble and pious man. Mr. Karamchand was the chief Dewan of the State of Rajkot.
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, in Probander India. Gandhi's real name is Mohandas. He is called Mahatma because Mahatma means "Great Soul" and was called this .
Gandhi was a prolific writer who published works in a variety of genres, including essays, poetry, letters, philosophy, and autobiography, and his works are chiefly noted for revealing the development of his religious philosophy, social program, and political technique of Satyagraha. Mahatma Gandhi Essay 4 ( words) Bapu, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was born in on 2 nd of October at Porbander in Gujarat, India. Mahatma Gandhi was a great Indian who led India with independence movement against British rule.
Mohandas Gandhi Essay Words | 5 Pages. Mohandas Gandhi once said “When I despair, I remember that all through history the ways of truth and love have always won. There have been tyrants, and murderers, and for a time they can seem invincible, but in the end they always fall. Think of it--always.” (Manas). Short 15 Lines Essay, Speech On Mahatma Gandhi in English Mahatma Gandhi ‘s full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi; he was born on 2nd October at Porbandar, Gujarat. Every year we celebrate Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary on 2nd October.