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The Cold War acted as catalyst to Civil Rights

❶Nonviolent Philosophy and Self Defense The success of the movement for African American civil rights across the South in the s has largely been credited to activists who adopted the strategy of nonviolent protest. Collier-Thomas, Bettye, and V.

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What is the Civil Rights movement?
Davarian L. Baldwin – Trinity College

Parallels Between the Civil Rights Movement and Post Civil War Reconstruction servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United State Civil Right Movement African-Americans, women, and men without property, had not always been accorded full citizenship rights in the American Republic Legal System, Civil Rights Movement, and the Nonviolent Social Ideals of Martin Luther King was shortly afterwards involved in the cause begun by civil rights activist Rosa Parks when she refused to follow the citys laws m Martin Luther King Jr.

US Civil Rights Movement Success In five pages this research paper discusses the s' civil rights movement in America in an overview of its success and the chan Civil Rights Movement Comparison In five pages the early twentieth century civil rights movement is compared with the activities of the s with New York's Equality in Education and the Significance of the U.

Civil Rights Movement In three pages this paper examines how education in America was positively impacted by the civil rights movement in a consideratio The documents downloaded from eCheat.

Students who utilize any model paper from eCheat. Fourteen-year-old Emmett Till was a visiting relatives in Money, Mississippi, on August 24, , when he reportedly whistled at white cashier at a grocery store about four days later, two white men kidnapped, beat and shot him in the head. The men were tried for murder, but an all-white, male jury acquitted them. This was the first in a series of wake up calls for White America and even further for Northern America about the horrific realities of lynching.

Up until this point the Northern population saw the movement as an issue of unfair treatment, this was the wake up call that shocked them into caring and understanding that this movement was truly a matter of the preservation of lives. The other role this case played was the attention a black journalist named Simeon Booker got. It was the first time that the White press had taken an interest in a case like this in the movement.

This was the point where leaders in the movement were able to grab ahold of the power of the non-Black press and set in motion a relationship with the media that would be crucial to the success of the movement. It can be said that the modern Civil Rights Movement was birthed out of and functioned within the realm of the Black church; because this is true it only makes sense that the gender roles that shaped the Black church were the same that shaped the movement.

The woman was essentially seen and not so much heard unless it was the wish of the men in the movement. The church also subscribed to the concept of charismatic leadership, which picked a figurehead as the face of the movement while grassroots led the movement. Just like male ministers head a church and the women of the church do all of the work that comes with running the church and preparing for service each Sunday, the women of the movement ensured order, made flyers, and created chains of information.

Martin Luther King Jr, who was the figurehead for the Civil Rights Movement and consisted of male ministers, founded it. These men traveled together and would preach about peace and equality but it was women who were necessary in organizing the groundwork.

Even more apparent was the direct link between religion and the leaders of the movement. The men whom we know as the primary faces or figureheads of the movement were both, first and foremost, religious leaders. Martin Luther King Jr. The fact that most of the civil rights movement leader were also church leaders shows how much church and this movement go together. The two most prominent forms of leadership in the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power are charismatic leadership and grassroots leadership.

In order for a movement to be successful there was to be figurehead. What this figurehead is just the face of the movement, for example Martin Luther king Jr was one of the figure heads chosen for this movement. When most people think of the Civil Rights Movement he is what comes to mind. The two most prominent forms of leadership in the course of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power are charismatic leadership and grassroots leadership.

Charismatic leadership is the more recognizable form of leadership in the movement this type of structure is modeled after the black church. It elects a figurehead with a charismatic disposition to essentially work as the face of the movement, such as Martin Luther King or Malcolm X. Representation of ideas and thoughts are relayed directly from those who conceived them, not from a figurehead.

This form of leadership was more popular in student groups such as the SNCC and was advocated by leaders such as Ella Baker. While these two forms of leadership are identified separately, they do in fact need each other. A figurehead leader is a good buffer to allow grassroots work continues without disruption while the public and press focus their attention on the leader.

Grassroots is fueled by its workers and a charismatic leader can draw in more manpower and ideas when people are attracted to a figureheads charisma. Most importantly though, charismatic leaders would have nothing to relay and put in action if not for the work of grassroots, creating campaigns, ideas, and strategies. During this movement however, women are clearly overlooked.

Voting districts cut through black neighborhoods to undermine the possibility of political power. At the same time, neighborhood school districts were redrawn in unorthodox ways so that white students could have the best facilities and keep them all white.

Yet African Americans found themselves on the margins of wartime prosperity. Federal defense spending did not desegregate jobs, public housing, or the armed forces. The United States entered the wartime world as the self-professed face of democracy, but African Americans began to make links between Nazi racism, European imperialism, and American white supremacy.

President Roosevelt responded by signing Executive Order that summer. Randolph called off the march, but black activists pressed on. Two months after the United States entered the war, the African-American Pittsburgh Courier newspaper announced a "Double V" campaign for victory against fascism abroad and racism at home.

The emerging black working class grew frustrated with its marginal position in a time of prosperity. Black leaders made considerable strides by employing a largely legal approach. Allwright and segregated transportation Morgan v. Virginia , housing Shelley v. Kraemer , and education Brown v. Yet legal protection was gradual and did not address growing economic concerns.

They fought racism within the labor movement, brought economic concerns to the statehouse, and demanded equal access to New Deal social welfare benefits. CORE used a decentralized and nonviolent, direct-action approach to politics, enacting Freedom Rides in the South to challenge segregated interstate transportation and sit-ins to protest northern discrimination.

President Roosevelt had proclaimed the Four Freedoms want, fear, worship, and speech yet black activists made clear that ghettos were in Berlin and also in Boston.

Between and industrial centers, military camps, and port cities, including Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles, exploded with race riots. Ongoing white civilian, military, and police attempts to constrain black life erupted in violent riots in more than forty cities.

American citizenship provided little security. The United States held itself up as a beacon in a sea of totalitarianism, and black people seized the opportunity to realign democracy with anti-racism instead of white supremacy. The African-American experience remained a central component of the geopolitical struggle during the Cold War. The Soviet Union U. In response, the United States both publicly endorsed gradual integration and fostered a stifling climate of anti-communism.

Communist activist Claudia Jones organized in Harlem for jobs, housing, and humane immigration policies. In the Cold War context, black struggles for freedom were largely denounced as un-American. The segregation of black children in inferior schools, however, brought special criticism.

Worldwide charges of American hypocrisy certainly played some part in the Brown decision. But the climate of anti-communism largely constrained most political battles to the legal arena while displacing the larger calls for freedom that included jobs, housing, land, and wealth. At the same time, courtroom success was quickly followed by waves of "massive resistance" by whites.

Less than a year after the Brown decision, fourteen-year-old Chicagoan Emmett Till was found murdered in Mississippi's Tallahatchie River. He had been shot and his body mutilated because he allegedly whistled at a white woman.

Yet his death was simply the most spectacular manifestation of white terror and racial containment. White citizens councils organized in Mississippi, using tax dollars from both blacks and whites to support their intimidation and harassment strategies.

Southern states shifted the populations of public housing from all-white to all-black and in segregated neighborhoods to stem the tide of Brown. At the same time, federally subsidized suburban developments were built with racial restrictive covenants written into their foundation, helping cement the stark contrast between impoverished "Chocolate Cities" and prosperous "Vanilla Suburbs.

During the Cold War the federal government funded both white prosperity and black containment. Yet African Americans kept on pushing with organized political strategies and social protest movements.

At least since Plessy v Ferguson , public transportation was a vital site of struggle over racial justice. Black paying customers were relegated to the back of city buses, and black women in particular endured assault, humiliation, and even gunplay at the hands of white bus drivers and customers.

But blacks found ways to respond to the shoving and pushing of white passengers: These subversive acts provided the infrastructure for more formal kinds of political action. As early as , black church and social organizations had organized a bus boycott in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Students at the all-black Alabama State University briefly organized a boycott in the spring of Then in December , the Women's Political Council in Montgomery, Alabama, seized on the arrest of Rosa Parks to ignite a full-blown, citywide boycott of the buses.

This was not even Parks's first violation of racial seating laws. Her calculated act was part of a burgeoning black social protest movement. Together they had long fought racial injustices in Alabama. A one-day boycott of buses turned into a protest that lasted more than one year.

Leaders, including peace activist Bayard Rustin, E. Nixon of the BSCP, clergy members, and radical organizer Ella Baker offered key strategies, but the protest's full effect was achieved through the feet and resiliency of riders and fellow travelers, who organized carpools and walked miles to work.

Even with threats of job loss and violence, the largely poor black masses effectively crippled a bus system that received 65 percent of its revenue from black riders. The Montgomery Bus Boycott of helped push toward the desegregation of buses all over the South while thrusting King into the rough-and-tumble world of political organizing. Nonviolent direct action had won the day and became the dominant mode of resistance for the movement. Moreover, the boycott took place the same year as the Bandung Conference of newly liberated African and Asian nations, situating Montgomery within a worldwide moment of freedom struggles.

In King was urged to create the Southern Christian Leadership Council SCLC to help coordinate local efforts among church, student, and community organizations and train them in the strategies of nonviolent protest. While the SCLC worked with all groups, its strategy highlighted a changing tide. The NAACP resented the attention and resources taken away from what it deemed more effective court cases to defend and support protesters. While Brown had desegregated the schools on the law books, it would take more to make integrated schools a lived reality.

President Eisenhower uttered not a word. The advent of television helped transport images of racial violence against black children into living rooms around the globe, visually demonstrating the racial terms of American democracy.

After Faubus removed the troops and left the children vulnerable to the whims of an angry and violent adult white mob, Eisenhower placed the National Guard under the authority of federal troops ordered to protect black students.

Black protest seemed to stoke the fires of white bloodlust and callousness directed against adults and children alike. Black residents were sentenced to prison and murdered, and homes were firebombed all across the South if the owners dared assert their constitutional rights.

Racial violence escalated, and the NAACP was not the only organization that grew frustrated with nonviolent direct-action politics.

But his frustration with nonviolent protest stemmed not from a preference for courtroom battles. He advocated armed self-defense, responding to white violence with bullets and barricades. Williams looked out over America's social landscape and saw little recourse in nonviolent protest or legal statutes.

As a case in point, the federal government passed the first Civil Rights Act in , but it was hardly enforced. Williams was part of a growing body of activists from within traditional organizations who were critical of both nonviolence and top-down leadership approaches from the start. Their presence reveals that the meaning of civil rights activism was not set in stone but constantly contested and reconstructed.

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The Civil Rights Movement was ongoing and the Civil Rights Act of was being enforced. Unlike my parents, aunts and grandparents, when I got older I only heard of the Civil Rights Movement and Act of in school, and did not know that I was reaping the benefits from it until I was old enough to understand.

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- A Summary of The Civil Rights Movement The civil rights movement saw one of it’s earliest achievements when The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (founded in ), fought to end race separation in .

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The Civil Rights Movement of the ’s was one of the most significant and important for the equality of all people. Since the abolition of slavery in , there had been a continuous conflict between the races of people who live in the United States. The Civil Rights Movement was an era dedicated to activism for equal rights and treatment of African Americans in the United States. During this period, people rallied for social, legal, political and cultural changes to prohibit discrimination and end segregation.

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Custom Civil Rights Movement Essay Writing Service || Civil Rights Movement Essay samples, help Introduction The civil rights movement was a movement in the United States in the s to the s and mainly led by Blacks in an effort to establish gender and racial equality for all the African Americans. Perhaps, the most extensive and far-reaching of such movements has been the Civil Rights Movement. By teaching your students about the Civil Rights Movement, you give them a chance to think about such significant topics as nonviolent protest, cultural change, coalition-building, and racial justice.