A science is a systematic study of phenomena which are within the area of its investigation. It undertakes to formulate the laws or principle which holds well without exception. Logic is a science as it is a systematic study of the method and principles of correct reasoning. Logic also studies and clarifies the different types of fallacies which are committed in correct reasoning. A distinction can be drawn between positive and normative sciences. A positive science describes how the facts in its area of investigation actually behave.
It arrives at general laws by the methods of observation and experiment. A normative science, on the other hand, investigates the norms as standard that should be applied. Logic is not a positive science, since it does not report how people actually reason or argue.
Since it deals with the standards or principles of correct thinking, it is a normative science. The use of the word 'reasoning' in the above definitions may be misleading.
The term 'reasoning' may signify a mental process or a mental product. In logic, we are not concerned with the actual process of reasoning rather with arguments which is a product. A thought when expressed in language becomes an argument. Thus, the statement that logic is an art and at the same time science of reasoning gives important insights into the nature of logic but as a definition, it is not very accurate.
Some logicians claim that logic is the science of laws of thought. But such a view is not correct because all reasoning involves thinking but all thinking cannot be called reasoning. Logic deals with correct reasoning and not with all types of thinking.
There are many mental processes such as remembering, imagining, day-dreaming etc. Psychology studies all these phenomena, but logic deals only with reasoning. I contend that although Shakespeare may have influenced Alice's Adventures in onderland, the principles of mathematical and logical reasoning are a grander source of influence on Carroll's…… [Read More]. Logic-Based Configurator on the Web. Logic a Viable Option for.
State the behavior, state the violated rule, state the unified consequence, and offer encouragement to prevent future violations " Algozzine, et. The Unified Discipline approach focuses on negative consequence, but forgets one important step of the learning process.
Positive reinforcement for good behaviors must be included in the theoretical models as well as punishers for negative behaviors. This is one of the key shortcomings of the Unified Discipline approach.
They are subject to rules that are forced upon them from their external environment. They may oppose the rules themselves and may not be motivated to follow the rules as…… [Read More].
Logic Model for the Community. Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user.
Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.
Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where…… [Read More]. This indicates that now-a-days organizations are adopting diversified and divergent outlook to the marketing function of their company. Operand resources and Operant resources The understanding of the difference between the operant and operand resources is very important in order to completely understand the concept of Dominant Logic.
The factors of production are a clear example of the Operand resources. Operand resources are the resources on which operation is conducted with the intention to produce a desired result. Operand resources are invisible and intangible. They are dynamic and infinite. Skills and…… [Read More]. Service -- Dominant Logic the. First the process of co-creation will be defined, followed several examples of successful co-creations of the customer experience.
Customer experience is the brand and co-creation is the process A firm that migrates to a service-dominant logic will move from selling a commodity to co-creating the customer's experiences. If you utilize the brand definition in the introduction portion of this paper -- a brand is the summation of a customer's interactions with a firm and their products and services - one must come to the conclusion that building a customer experience equates to building a brand Prahalad, The job of a marketer becomes one creating positive encounters; encounters which influence the customer's ability, willingness and opportunities to co-create with firm.
The process of co-creation is evolving. In ,Prahalad and Ramaswamy, describe the building blocks of interactions.
To co-create, a firm needed to facilitate dialogues, create access to…… [Read More]. Production of Value using SDL: Service-dominant logic is a mindset or model that has emerged as the world continue to be increasingly interconnected and turbulent. This logic emphasizes on the relations of the producer and consumer as well as other partners in the supply and value network in their co-production of value through collaborative procedures. The logic is driven by an intrinsic purpose of carrying out an activity with other parties making it to be customer-centered and responsive.
Actually, service-dominant logic considers service as the application of knowledge through actions, procedures, and performances for the advantage of the entity itself or another entity. Consequently, is generates competitive advantage and long-term customer loyalty through aligning the firm's capabilities with the needs of customers.
Co-production in…… [Read More]. Nature of Logic and Perception. Eventually, I realized not simply that teachers are human -- that they go to the bathroom, and function in all the ways 'normal' adults do -- but I later learned, from discussing the matter with my fellow classmates that most of them felt Mrs.
X had been particularly cruel as a grade school teacher. I also learned that most of the students from the class felt that she had not been particularly cruel towards myself -- all of them felt particularly persecuted during her reign!
Critical thinking is objective. However, the perceptions of a child, and even of a more mature student seldom have this objective perspective in the classroom. Also, one is always dealing with imperfect information, as one does not know about what is going on in the life of the teacher as well as one's own life.
Later, I heard Mrs. X had been suffering a particularly…… [Read More]. Defeating the Logic of Terrorist. For instance, acceptance of physical defeat will render the opponent victorious but with mild understanding of the ideological approaches taken.
This will help the nation to be always upfront in cases of physical war Wing, Q2 The battle of ideas is more valuable than military and law enforcement aspects.
The battle of ideas is a more critical aspect of war than any other battle. Differences in ideas have often been the reason behind any war, attacks, and plans for war in any nation all over the world.
This means that ideological satisfaction among the raging groups will result in calm, and avoidance of any other war be it physical or of any other form.
The war between the U. And Islamic terrorists culminated due to ideological differences in…… [Read More]. Thinking in itself appears to be proof of one's own existence. Self-consciousness -- the awareness that one is thinking -- offers indelible proof of a higher order of thought.
Yet paradoxically, thoughts also seem to arise seemingly unbidden from the recesses of the mind. The sources of thought have been attributed to everything from God to nothingness Hauser, Moreover, the sources of individualized thought processes are related to socialization and acculturation as well as to innate sensations and belief systems.
There are some trends of human cognition that may be universal, and others that are instilled through social norms. Understanding the ways thought processes work is one of the most important aspects of being human.
Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed.
Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…… [Read More].
Wittgenstein Ludwig Wittgenstein Logic and. This means that, according to ittgenstein, math performs like language, or perhaps more simply language performs like math.
There are certain established rules, both of grammar and of meaning, that allow language to be useful as long as statements are true, and anything that is not true or that cannot be spoken of using language i. It does not fit into a logical system must be discarded Stanford, sec. Mathematics and language are the same thing, then, simply with a different set of representational symbols. The implications that these statements have on computer science should be fairly obvious.
Though humans are capable of creating language, or at least of agreeing on new representational symbols, computers are as yet unable to take a creative hand in language development themselves.
Far from calling into question the veracity of ittgenstein's claims in relation to mathematics, the practice of computer science shows them…… [Read More]. Development of Logic Model. The Farm was located near Americus, Georgia, founded in , and the leader of the small Christian society was a bible scholar, Clarence Jordan. Those living at the Farm were of all backgrounds and races of people that needed affordable housing.
The concept to work together through 'partnership housing' or voluntarily assisting in the construction of decent housing for people in need of good homes was planted. What type of subjects does it work with? The main subject area is community housing for the poor or low income family.
Therefore the subject is humanities and the…… [Read More]. These rules can also however restrict the critical and creative aspect that is necessary for growth. This is so because they restrict any new information that may lead to what is perceived as chaos.
Traditions play the same role. They are established in order to maintain a certain status quo for the purpose of organizational unity. However, an excess of such unity can also mean that no new thought is available or stimulated to create new growth for the future. Cultural blocks is an important perceptual block that can often lead to prejudice or ostracization from a group. A cultural block requires conformity to the accepted ways of thinking and acting within a cultural group.
Daring to differ from these established traditions often result in a sense of discomfort for the individual. Cultural blocks often lead to prejudice against those that do not look, act, or think according to the…… [Read More]. When staff was asked for the reasons why they were quitting one of the responses was that EL's crisis management style was insufficient, better opportunities for career advancement, and that the "chain of command" was also great reason for unrest within the organization.
These are all additional reasons that can lead to a lack of motivation in an organization; if an employee feels that there is no one to turn to, that there are no opportunities for advancement, and that the hierarchy does not communicate with them will give the employee reasons to be unsatisfied.
Additional problems in an organization that may be reasons for motivational problems found in EL include the inability of employees to see the finished product. Each department has their job, once their job has been completed, it is possible that the project is then transferred to another building to have other aspects of the project…… [Read More]. Vin Logic Simulation Lessons Learned and Insights Gained from the VinLogic Simulation Model The intent of this analysis is to provide an overview of lessons learned in the areas of operations management, specifically in the areas of transportation and delivery as a result of viewing and studying the VinLogic Simulation Model.
The VinLogic Model is predicated on the concepts of the supply chain optimization and modeling, a patented series of technologies created by Simulation Dynamics Vinlogic, Lessons Learned in Transportation and Delivery At its most fundamental level, the VinLogic Simulation Model is highly effective in illustrating, both from a graphical and workforce perspective, how constraint-based modeling and optimization techniques can increase logistics, transportation and delivery performance.
The examples show are easily interpreted across national and global logistics and supply chains, illustrates how delays, production schedules and supply chain contingencies all act as constraints on the broader optimization model.
Deductive Logic and Theory Building. Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction There has been much controversy regarding feminism during recent decades and even though the contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering the idea of civilization, gender discrimination continues to occur in some areas.
One's location is likely to be an important factor in making the respective individual more or less of a feminist. Geographic locations are thus essential in shaping a person's character and his or her determination to become a feminist. I believe that it is very likely for feminism to depend on factors such as geographic location, taking into account that many cultures are hesitant about accepting feminist ideas and some are even likely to use harsh criticism as a means to control or even to eradicate these respective ideas.
My theory is going to attempt to confirm the fact that geographic location can play an important role in making…… [Read More]. Vin Logic Simulation Lessons Learned. The ability of companies to attain a high level of knowedlge sharing, in effect becoming knowledge generation networks, is well-known in the areas of auto manufacturing, specifically at Toyota Dyer, Nobeoka, Simulations such as these show the potential to predict if and when a company will attain this level of process and knowledge sharing performance.
Assessing the Pros and Cons of Simulations as Learning Platforms The primary strength of constraint-based models is their ability to interpret many potentially conflicting constraints and still arrive at an optimal solution for logistics and transportation management initiatives and programs.
This simulation also illustrates how the trade-offs inherent in the constraints have a major impact on the overall profitability of a company over time. Another aspect of this simulation showed how a bottleneck at any one point can cost tens of thousands or even millions in lost sales and inventory carrying costs. Finally, the…… [Read More]. Possessing all of these can actually aid in the ability to have more effective research.
The passion will encourage the researcher to explore more thoroughly than one who is not passionate or interested. He will make use of the resources available to him -- such as the university library or the online databases where relevant literature is stored.
His curiosity will prompt him to ask questions that others might not think to ask. Skepticism allows the researcher to distrust results and work to make sure they are conclusive, and memory helps to connect the dots of data and findings so that a clear picture can emerge Holton, Swanson, Another good practice is to have a good research design.
A good design will serve as a quality frame that helps to keep the study together, whereas a poor…… [Read More]. Logic Model for the Social Security Agency. Social Security Summarized Goals Fundamental improvements in platform cybersecurity; website UI and UX; easier access to accurate and comprehensive information by phone or through digital portals; increased emphasis on beneficiary-centric information; communication and services; and improved customer service on all channels.
The research was undertaken to assess whether the location of fish, specifically smallmouth bass and largemouth bass, downstream from wastewater treatment plants, is influencing the biological development of the fish with reference to the presence of cells associated with female reproductive systems developing on the testis of male fish.
Oocytes are he cells which will develop into ovum for reproduction in females, and are usually absent in males. With the testicular oocytes observed on fish collected across different areas of the South Branch of the river it would appear that…… [Read More]. Approaches in Mass Media and Satisfiers in Marriage. Logic and Biological Explanations of Human Behavior What are the logic or biological explanations of human behavior? For instance, in the society, it is always believed that it is natural for a woman and a man to fall in love, be married, and start a family.
Equally, it is natural for this nuclear family to exist as a unit, with the parents going to work to provide for their children. The wife also devotes some of her time to looking after the kids and being a mother.
As the family grows and becomes more independent, it is only logical for the kids to live at home with their parents at least until their late teen years. By this time, it is only logical for them to leave their parents' home and want to make…… [Read More]. We all believe, as an article of faith, that life evolved from dead matter on this planet. It is just that its complexity is so great, it is hard for us to imagine that it did.
Rehabilitating Mothers of Infant Children. Logic Model The author of this report has been asked to offer a brief report. The main focus of the report will be a logic model that is presented in the appendix of this report and will be discussed throughout the narrative of the same.
Prior to that, however, there will be a section dedicated to the organization and operation that will employ the use of this logic model in terms of its direction, actions and priorities. The general focus of the organization will be covered as well as the location and the general manner in which the organization operations and functions. Subsequent to that, there will be a focus on how the logic model is going to be applied to this situation.
Further, there will be a discussion of the situation, priorities and inputs for the same. While the task at hand may seem daunting, the work of the…… [Read More]. Is the Phelps' plan an improvement over current government policies? Lowering a company's tax bill will generally always be effective in causing them to invest more money in expanding which usually means more hiring. However, it is not a panacea, as the recent economic incentives have proven.
As of late, firms have received a number of tax cuts but there has also been the passing of the Dodd Frank financial reform bill as well as ObamaCare, both of which ObamaCare in particular is clearly making employers cool to hire…… [Read More].
The writer apparently is fixated on Marvel Comics' Wolverine character because he blasts all other comic books and raves about Marvel and the Wolverine character plus another Marvel feature, X-Men. His conclusion is that spending money on any action movie -- or "summer blockbuster" -- other than the Wolverine or X-Men is wasteful. His basic theme throughout his presentation is that all action figures in comics and in movies pale in comparison to his favorite, Marvel the Wolverine and X-Men.
What are the reasons? The reasons that this writer raves about the Wolverine and other Marvel characters is that if his cousin Vinnie says the Marvel Comics characters are by far the best, it must be true. Of course his justification for taking the positions he takes is loaded with hyperbole but his reasons are clearly to make it known his favorite action comic…… [Read More].
Specifically it will discuss the "Allegory of the Cave" contained in the book and relate it to the background logic you brought to this class and establish whether or not this class has affected your background logic.
If so how, and if not, why not? The allegory of the cave may be Plato's most famous allegory from his work "The epublic" and it is still a viable source of logic in today's world. However, I do not agree with all of Plato's logic, and my logic has not changed since taking this class -- in fact, the class has simply helped cement my own background logic in my mind even further.
After reading "The Allegory of the Cave" and attempting to understand Plato's logic and philosophy, I feel my background logic seems intact.
Before I enrolled in this class, my logic was basically "If…… [Read More]. The author has written three previous textbooks on philosophy. This is his first book on logic, but as he writes, logic undergirds all thinking and goes to the core of what we mean by human intelligence. Logic is the basis of all human thinking. Critical Thinking Is an Activity.
The problem in having a firm grasp of critical thought is that it can be clouded by many different distractions and affected by variables outside of controllable circumstances. One of these factors is cognitive development. It is evident that cognitive development as a strong overall impact on the development of critical thinking. Genetics plays a strong role within cognitive development, as individuals are all born with differing genetic levels of comprehension and thus some people will have better critical thinking abilities purely based on their genes.
The circumstances that an individual grows up in also have a profound effect on their critical thinking abilities and process. This is because as an individual grows up they can form differing opinions and stigmas that are taught both explicitly and implicitly through cultural doctrine, social convention, as well as education in both informal settings such as at home as well as formal settings…… [Read More].
Integrating Critical as Well as. Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, To conclude, it be said that if we will not be able to master imparting the capability to think in a developed form, our profession, as well as perhaps our world, would be influenced and taken over by someone who would be able to outsmart us to find it out. We would in that case not only remain thinking as to what happened but would also not have the skills required to provide answers to our own question.
Journal of Education for Business, 79 4. Nursing Diagnosis, 12 2. Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking.
College Student…… [Read More]. As Pascal said, "We are but thinking reeds, but because we know, we are superior to the universe. This paper will discuss some of the facets of this important topic. As there have been several definitions of the term "critical thinking" these definitions will be compared and contrasted.
In addition, an evaluation of ways in which critical thinking relates to cognitive development, logic and emotionality will be given. The role of cognitive dissonance and how it plays in fostering critical thought will be analyzed, and the validity of arguments will be evaluated, as will fallacious logic and reasoning.
And also, his conclusion is that "all technologies" designed to help advertising "will tend to push social evolution in this direction," e. Doesn't it seem possible that there are a few people in advertising who have no interest in dominating people's minds, but just want to make a living creating clever advertising to sell kites, and toothpaste, and English muffins?
In this regard, Mander is using a "hasty generalization"; that is, making an inductive generalization "that draws a conclusion about all members of a group from evidence that pertains to a select few" Hurley, But wait, Mander hasn't even shown any evidence; he just fires with both barrels and makes a "false cause" a fallacy based on a phantom link between his premises and conclusions Hurley, Before launching into his four arguments, Mander asks readers to believe 47 that the four are…… [Read More].
Forming Judgments and the Development of Sound. Inquiry helps eliminate first impressions, preconceived notions and biases through a process of investigation of issues. The investigation itself could be either an inquiry into facts or an inquiry into opinions. Given the widespread availability of information, a key aspect to conducting inquiry is the ability to be realistic about how final the answers are likely to be. One good way to determine this is to evaluate when the evidence is sufficient to permit the making of a judgment with certainty or if the evidence gathered is enough to demonstrate that one view of the issue being investigated has the force of probability.
Points that need to be borne in mind while forming judgments include the need to distinguish between: Education Philosophies Understanding Educational Philosophies. Furthermore, the nature and types of value, such as morals, aesthetics, religion, and metaphysics are the core focal areas for this study.
In other words, this field of study is related to ethics and aesthetics. This hypothetical study of values is also vital in education because it promotes the learning of moral rules, principles, ethics and values; hence it leads the individual to gain knowledge related to the good deeds and actions.
Logic is considered the fourth subdivision of philosophy…… [Read More]. Programming Genetic Circuits Is Fundamentally. To elaborate, he used his 'transistor' to build logic circuits that program each cell's behavior.
For instance, he was able to tell a cell to change color in the presence of both a specified two enzymes. In the first grainy image below, Endy's DNA "buffer gates" flash different colors according to their situation. In the image below that, we have a string of DNA -- we see the code of the a's, C's, T's and G's -- that has been programmed by synthetic biologist Eric Winfree of the California Institute of Technology Critical Thinking Is a Mental.
During the critical thinking process the thinker will use all of these components, evaluating the implications and consequences of each, until they reach a satisfactory answer. In order to reach a conclusion using critical thinking, one must hold off making judgment until all available facts are given and fully evaluated.
However, the very nature of the critical thinking process means that there is no end to the critical thinking process. Although one may end at a conclusion, this conclusion is only tentative based on the evidence used in the evaluation that led to that particular conclusion. However, a conclusion is always subject to new information and evidence, thus the critical thinking process goes on.
Each of will employ the methods of critical thinking on a regular basis. Often times we find ourselves using critical thinking when we are presented with a situation where our perception of reality is far from…… [Read More]. Appeal for a Law to. He individually abuses the essayist in the following manner: In this manner he is committing Ignorati Elenchi an irrelevant conclusion where he is reading an inappropriate conclusion to the argument. Furthermore, he is appealing to pity "All dogs love riding out in the air.
They need room to jump around" rather than to logic. And in summary form, this is not an argument: This type of letter might appeal to a particular "hard-working citizen" possibly overwhelmed with the problems of trying…… [Read More]. Educational Ideology Philosophy and Theory. Finally, logic consists of the study of formal argument and is fundamentally related to other branches of philosophy and to the process of human reason, more generally.
By connecting the awarding of a peace prize with the concerns of a world in which terrorism has become a constant threat, Obama makes clear the exigency of his message when he says: I believe that he did a good -- though not perfect -- job in meeting these differing expectations, and so crafted a speech that served as a fitting response to the occasion.
Whether or not one believes that Obama achieved the Aristotelian concept of ethos -- the ability to make a credible ethical appeal -- depends probably more on one's own politics than the speech itself. Elgin Seeking the Truth in. The mathematician's goal might be to determine the angle of a triangle; the painter's goal might be to assault the viewer's eye with a distorted or 'wrong' proportion or using an impossible perspective. In other words, the criterion depends on the desired result of the project and the type of literal or figurative knowledge one wishes to convey.
Neither system of knowledge is better, merely different, with different criteria or goals. Elgin's statement of reflective equilibrium acknowledges human beings have many different goals in knowing something is true or right. Sometimes our goal is to make something practical, as when seeking knowledge in a scientific truth.
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Logic can be defined as the systematic study of the methods and principles of correct reasoning or arguments. Logic teaches us the techniques and methods for testing the correctness of .
Using James Madison’s essays, Federalist No. 10 and Federalist No. 51, Americans can have a better understanding of how logic was and is used in our government. James Madison was the fourth president of the United States and is one of the founding fathers of the United States. Jan 16, · Words: Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Dominant Logic DOMANT LOGIC It is not a simple task to understand "Dominant Logic." Dominant logic is .
How To Write a Logical Essay in Four Steps By Mark Vecchio This tool is nothing more than an essay template; not a five-paragraph “Baker’s” essay, but a college/grad-school short essay structure based on fundamental principles of logic. Writing logic essays is not an easy task. If you do not have the aptitude or patience to conduct a time consuming research or if you are unable to take time off to do .