In the future, the world's population is expected to peak,  after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is very likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will actually decline before The population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by gradually declining birth rates.
These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates. Human population control is the practice of altering the rate of growth of a human population. Historically, human population control has been implemented with the goal of increasing the rate of population growth.
In the period from the s to the s, concerns about global population growth and its effects on poverty, environmental degradation , and political stability led to efforts to reduce population growth rates. While population control can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, a few programs, most notably the Chinese government's one-child per family policy, have resorted to coercive measures.
In the s, tension grew between population control advocates and women's health activists who advanced women's reproductive rights as part of a human rights -based approach. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. All the orgnisms of a given species that live in the specified region. For other uses, see Population disambiguation. Retrieved 5 December Principles of Population Genetics. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. Retrieved 1 July Archived from the original on 24 April Retrieved 29 April Retrieved 29 November United Nations Population Division.
Retrieved 14 March The world population continues its path towards population ageing and is on track to surpass 9 billion persons by Forecast , United Nations, Retrieved 4 November Economist Julian Lincoln Simon has criticised Malthus's conclusions.
Many factors have been identified as having contributed: Each played a role. From the opposite angle, Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and a paradigm founder of ecological economics , has argued that Malthus was too optimistic, as he failed to recognize any upper limit to the growth of population — only, the geometric increase in human numbers is occasionally slowed down checked by the arithmetic increase in agricultural produce, according to Malthus' simple growth model; but some upper limit to population is bound to exist, as the total amount of agricultural land — actual as well as potential — on Earth is finite, Georgescu-Roegen points out.
Machinery , chemical fertilisers and pesticides all rely on mineral resources for their operation, rendering modern agriculture — and the industrialised food processing and distribution systems associated with it — almost as dependent on Earth's mineral stock as the industrial sector has always been.
Georgescu-Roegen cautions that this situation is a major reason why the carrying capacity of Earth — that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels — is bound to decrease sometime in the future as Earth's finite stock of mineral resources is presently being extracted and put to use.
Anthropologist Eric Ross depicts Malthus's work as a rationalization of the social inequities produced by the Industrial Revolution , anti-immigration movements, the eugenics movement [ clarification needed ] and the various international development movements. Despite use of the term "Malthusian catastrophe" by detractors such as economist Julian Simon — , Malthus himself did not write that mankind faced an inevitable future catastrophe.
Rather, he offered an evolutionary social theory of population dynamics as it had acted steadily throughout all previous history. Malthusian social theory influenced Herbert Spencer 's idea of the survival of the fittest ,  and the modern ecological-evolutionary social theory of Gerhard Lenski and Marvin Harris. Huxley openly criticised communist and Roman Catholic attitudes to birth control , population control and overpopulation. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace each read and acknowledged the role played by Malthus in the development of their own ideas.
Darwin referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher",  and said: I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population The result of this would be the formation of new species. It was the first great work I had yet read treating of any of the problems of philosophical biology, and its main principles remained with me as a permanent possession, and twenty years later gave me the long-sought clue to the effective agent in the evolution of organic species.
Ronald Fisher commented sceptically on Malthusianism as a basis for a theory of natural selection. John Maynard Smith doubted that famine functioned as the great leveller, as portrayed by Malthus, but he also accepted the basic premises:. Malthusian ideas continue to have considerable influence. Ehrlich has written several books predicting famine as a result of population increase: The Population Bomb ; Population, resources, environment: In the late s Ehrlich predicted that hundreds of millions would die from a coming overpopulation-crisis in the s.
Other examples of work that has been accused of "Malthusianism" include the book The Limits to Growth published by the Club of Rome and the Global report to the then President of the United States Jimmy Carter. Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov issued many appeals for population-control reflecting the perspective articulated by people from Robert Malthus through Paul R. Ecological economist Herman Daly has recognized the influence of Malthus on his own work on steady-state economics.
More recently [update] , a school of "neo-Malthusian" scholars has begun to link population and economics to a third variable, political change and political violence, and to show how the variables interact. In the early s, Jack Goldstone linked population variables to the English Revolution of — [ citation needed ] and David Lempert devised a model of demographics, economics, and political change in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius.
Goldstone has since modeled other revolutions by looking at demographics and economics [ citation needed ] and Lempert has explained Stalin 's purges and the Russian Revolution of in terms of demographic factors that drive political economy. These approaches suggest that political ideology follows demographic forces.
Malthus, sometimes regarded as the founding father of modern demography,  continues to inspire and influence futuristic visions, such as those of K. Eric Drexler relating to space advocacy and molecular nanotechnology. As Drexler put it in Engines of Creation Nevertheless, Malthus was essentially right.
The Malthusian growth model now bears Malthus's name. Verhulst developed the logistic growth model favored by so many critics of the Malthusian growth model in only after reading Malthus's essay. Malthus has also inspired retired physics professor, Albert Allen Bartlett , to lecture over 1, times on "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy", promoting sustainable living and explaining the mathematics of overpopulation.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An Essay on the Principle of Population Title page of the original edition of An Essay on the Principle of Population. Chapter VII, p 44 . Chapter 2, p 8 .
Chapter IX, p 72 . Modern synthesis 20th century. The autobiography of Charles Darwin. Condorcet and Other Writers 1 ed. Johnson in St Paul's Church-yard. Retrieved 20 June Oxford World's Classics reprint. Unintended consequences play a major role in economic thought; see the invisible hand and the tragedy of the commons.
Johns Hopkins University Press. Marx and Engels on Malthus. Society and Its Environment: University of California Press. University of Michigan Press. Johnson, , p. Oxford World's Classics reprint: The Social Contract Press. Malthus past and present. Introduction to Malthus, Essay on the Principle of Population. Malthus's Essay on That Subject. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown.
For an annotated extract, see: Archived from the original on 14 October Retrieved 14 June The University of Chicago Press. The ultimate resource ; and The ultimate resource II. Archived from the original PDF contains only the title and contents pages of the book on 18 October Steady-state economics 2nd ed.
Zed Books, London, Principles of Biology , vol. On the origin of species by means of natural selection. The Nature of Selection: Evolutionary Theory in Philosophical focus. University of Chicago Press.
Malthusianism is not a proper starting point for the theory of natural selection for reasons made abundantly clear by Fisher , pp. There is something like a relic of creationist philosophy in arguing from the observation, let us say, that a cod spawns a million eggs, that therefore its offspring are subject to Natural Selection; and it has the disadvantage of excluding fecundity from the class of characteristics of which we may attempt to appreciate the aptitude At this stage, Malthus had not yet reached the level of analysis that would later lead him to be called the founding father of modern demography.
Biocapacity Optimum population Overpopulation Malthusian catastrophe Population Population ethics Population momentum Sustainable development Women's reproductive rights Zero population growth. Family planning Pledge two or fewer Human population planning One-child policy Two-child policy Population biology Population decline Population density Physiological density Population dynamics Population growth Population model Population pyramid Projections of population growth.
Deforestation Desalination Desertification Environmental impact of agriculture of aviation of biodiesel of concrete of electricity generation of the energy industry of fishing of irrigation of mining of off-roading of oil shale industry of palm oil of paper of the petroleum industry of reservoirs of shipping of war Industrialisation Land degradation Land reclamation Overconsumption Pollution Quarrying Urbanization Loss of green belts Urban sprawl Waste Water scarcity Overdrafting.
Population and Environment Population and Development Review. Population and housing censuses by country Metropolitan areas by population Population milestone babies. Commons Human overpopulation Human activities with impact on the environment Human migration.
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Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikisource. India being a secular state, she cannot exercise any check or restraint on religious grounds. Another great factor that contributes to the population growth is the cursed voting system. It is based on number. On the other hand the voting pattern, especially in northern India, is based on caste.
Naturally, the caste that outstrips the other castes in sheer number of votes enjoys a comparatively higher leverage in the domain of powers. Early marriages not only leads to high-population and thwart the progress of our young population, they entail an enormous amount of trouble to young mothers. These young girls, in most cases, are not healthy enough to bear the burden of childbearing. The importance of a higher standard of living should be inculcated in the mind of the mass of the people.
ADVERTISEMENTS: Population Growth: Essay on Population Growth! From sociological point of view – population simply means number of people, living at a particular area (country/region) at a particular time. The current human population growth is something unprecedented in the history of the world.
Essay on Population Growth: Its effects and solution Category: Blog On February 13, By Gyan Introduction: The rising population of India is one of the major problems of the country.
China is the largest country in the world with a population of 1, ,, people and ranked the third largest in size in the world. In the year the population of China will be about 1,,, The population in china is growing by about 87% a year. China is . The Economic Agency of Women in Malthus’ Essay on the Principle of Population - The Economic Agency of Women in Malthus’ Essay on the Principle of Population It is difficult to examine the question of the division of labor within the household in Malthus’ writings as .
An essay on principle of population may be written for academic use, another population essay may be written for a magazine, and a population growth essay could be written for a scientific journal, or an essay on principle of population could be written for a political research, etc. The remarkable increase in the world population occurred during the 20th century. The reason behind was the incredible progress in the medical facilities available .