Skip Nav

Welcome to the Purdue OWL

Title Page

❶Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing.

This article is a part of the guide:

APA Style Blog
March 14, 2018
Main navigation

When multiple studies support what you have to say, you can include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses. In running text, you can address studies in whatever order you wish. However, sometimes one or both of these elements are truly missing. The table below shows what substitutions to make for in-text citations if that happens.

Titles of books and reports are italicized in in-text citations, and titles of articles and other documents are put in quotation marks. Capitalize the important words see section 4. Important Tips and Further Reading.

You may include page numbers for paraphrases if you think it would aid the reader such as when you use only a portion of a large book , but this is not required. Posted by Chelsea Lee at TrackBack URL for this entry: If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. Sometimes these rules intersect in ways that may make a sentence look awkward; in the sentence below, it is correct to use a word for ninth and numerals for 10th and 11th , and although there is nothing wrong with this from an APA Style perspective, it may set off internal alarm bells for you.

Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence. Although this is not required, it may make you feel happier about your writing, and we are all for you feeling happy about your writing.

For more on numeral usage, see Sections 4. If you have additional questions about how to write about grades in APA Style, leave a question in the comments section. Posted by Chelsea Lee at Twelfth-grade students received diplomas at graduation. The first-grade students went on a field trip.

The first graders… If several ordinal grades are presented in a series of compound adjectives, then use hyphens with each. The sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students go to a middle school. Students in ninth, 10th, and 11th grades [this is correct] Often the awkwardness can be resolved by rephrasing the sentence.

APA Style Introduction

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

Privacy FAQs

The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. APA Style Introduction // Purdue Writing Lab Loading.

About Our Ads

The authority on APA Style and the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual. Find tutorials, the APA Style Blog, how to format papers in APA Style, and other resources to help you improve your writing, master APA Style, . The APA writing style has evolved through time and several changes have been adapted in response to the electronic information age. What follows are some useful pointers for those of you who have been asked to write a paper using the APA format. In general, your paper should follow these formatting guidelines.

Cookie Info

APA Paper Formatting & Style Guidelines Your teacher may want you to format your paper using APA guidelines. If you were told to create your citations in APA format, your paper should be formatted using the APA guidelines as well. General guidelines: Use white 8 ½ x 11” paper. Make [ ]. Do you need to write an APA style paper but not sure where to begin? Here are some quick guidelines and tips to get you started on your paper.